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Energy-Efficient Multi-Level Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network


Muhammad Sajjad Hussain


Vol. 19  No. 11  pp. 74-81


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have paved the way for a new arena of monitoring and gathering information. One of the most significant criteria for smooth operation of WSNs is the limited energy supply of the sensor nodes. Numerous elegant energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed in the literature for solving this problem, e.g. LEACH [1], PEGASIS [2], Hierarchical PEGASIS [3], LEFC [4], CFC [8]. But these protocols seem to suffer from transmission overhead. In this paper we propose Multilevel Hierarchical Routing Protocol (MHRP), a new energy-efficient hierarchical routing protocol, for homogeneous wireless sensor network. Mathematical analysis reveals that Multilevel Hierarchical Routing Protocol (MHRP) outperforms LEACH [1] by 683% longer lifetime for the period when WSN remains fully functionally operational. So far lifetime is concerned MHRP performs equal to that of CFC [8] but it uses 4.26% less energy than CFC [8]. MHRP uses fixed cluster and multiple designated first-level cluster-head (CH) nodes at the center of each cluster. Designated first-level CHs transmit data to the designated second-level CHs located at the center of WSN area. Designated second-level CHs transmit data to the designated third-level CHs located at the nearest position of the base-station within the WSN area. Eventually the third-level CH nodes transmit data to the base-station. In all three levels of designated cluster-head nodes only one node remains in active state and performs the duty of the CH. Rest of the designated cluster-head nodes of each level remain in sleep state and just prior to the death of current CH node of a level, another one from among the designated cluster-head nodes of that level take over the responsibility of the CH. In all three levels of designated cluster-head nodes data is transmitted to the next level CH only after data fusion is done. This scheme reduces transmission overhead and increases the lifetime of the WSN significantly.


Wireless Sensor Network Hierarchical Routing of Wireless Sensor Network Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Routing Protocol Multilevel Hierarchical Routing of Wireless Sensor Network.