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Microaneurysms, Haemorrhages and Exudates based Diabetic Retinopathy: Automatic Early Detection Systems and the State of the Art


Khaled A. Almejalli


Vol. 18  No. 6  pp. 43-48


One of the comorbidities of Diabetes Mellitus is Diabetic Retinopathy. This ailment is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The presence of microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates is one of the early symptoms of diabetic retinopathy. Research has shown that detection at an earlier stage and proper treatment can control the disease and, hence, prevents from blindness. Fundus images of retina inside the eye are utilized for screening purposes. These screenings can be done manually by a human expert or automated using advanced detection and classification algorithms. Due to scarcity of ophthalmologists worldwide, a need of advanced automated systems is sensed like never before. This paper presents a brief review of diabetic retinopathy and its associated knowledge. It then provides a comparison of recent state of the art approaches for the computer aided detection of microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates. The discussion and comparison of different latest algorithms is presented at the end.


Diabetic Retinopathy, Microaneurysm, Early Detection, Fundus Images, Exudate, Haemorrhage.