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Audio Zero-Watermarking Based on Discrete Hartley Transform and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization


Pranab Kumar Dhar, Emtiaj Hasan, and Tetsuya Shimamura


Vol. 17  No. 8  pp. 11-18


This paper proposes a zero-watermarking method based on discrete Hartley transform (DHT) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for audio signal. Initially, the DHT is applied to the original audio signal to obtain the DHT coefficients. Then, the DHT coefficients are divided into an arbitrary number of frames. The coefficients of each frame are arranged into a square matrix and NMF is applied to each matrix. The summation of the coefficients of each weight matrix is calculated and the fractional part of this summation is selected. The fractional part is converted into integer value and modulation operation is performed to generate a binary pattern. XOR operation is applied between the watermark data and generated binary pattern. This operation generates a secret key, which is used later to extract the watermark. The proposed method does not embed any watermark into original audio, indicating that it is imperceptible. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against various attacks such as noise addition, re-sampling, re-quantization, low-pass filtering, echo, MP3 compression and so on. Moreover, it shows superior performance than the state-of-the-art watermarking methods in terms of robustness.


Copyright protection Discrete Hartley transform Non-negative matrix factorization Zero watermarking