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Authentication of Topographic EEG: Employing Transform Based Watermarking


Rafi Ullah, Hani Ali Alquhayz


Vol. 17  No. 3  pp. 43-54


With the use of advanced communication systems, attackers can easily tamper with data without being detected. In this paper, the wavelet-based watermarking method has been used to ensure the secure transformation of topographic EEG data. Unlike other more conventional approaches, a blind semi-fragile watermark is embedded in the estimated motions of topographic EEG. Instead of using conventional block-based approaches, this approach concisely determines the altered areas. An efficient trade-off has been achieved in the three most common conflicting properties of watermarking: payload, distortion rate, and robustness. The proposed approach is able to survive legitimate manipulations such as JPEG compression. The simulation results demonstrate the performance of our algorithm.


EEG topo-maps, brain, motion vectors, block-based motion estimation (BMA), watermark.